Blockchain Adoption in Food Supply Chains: A Systematic Literature Review on Enablers, Benefits, and Barriers
Globalization of the food supply chain (FSC) has brought significant challenges to the food system, such as fraud, safety, security, and quality issues, due to information asymmetry. Globalization also increases the difficulty and complexity of solving these problems to improve FSC efficiency. Blockchain technology (BCT) has proven to have the capability to transform FSC based on its potential benefits. However, studies of BCT adoption in FSC are relatively new and scarce. This study systematically reviews the current state of research in the space of BCT and FSCs. In carrying out the research, a systematic literature review (SLR) was deployed using two prominent databases, Scopus and Business Source Complete (EBSCO), covering articles from 2016 to 2021, with 52 articles synthesized to identify blockchain enablers, benefits, and barriers. Based on this review, a conceptual framework was developed for BCT adoption within the FSC. The study identified scalability, interoperability, high cost, lack of expertise, and regulations as the most likely barriers to BCT adoption. It contributes to the body of knowledge by providing insights into BCT adoption in the FSC and offers evidence-based direction for other industries to build their BCT strategies.