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Enhancing Overt and Covert Attention Using a Real-time Neurofeedback Game with Consumer-grade EEG
Neurofeedback training is emerging as a promising tool for cognitive enhancement in healthy as well as cognitive-deficit patients. In this paper, we propose the design of a real-time neurofeedback game using a consumer-grade wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) system and examine its efficacy in enhancing overt and covert attention abilities for healthy individuals. The game uses a simulated car navigation task, in which a car is navigated using the attention level of the player. A total of twenty-three healthy subjects participated in four sessions of neurofeedback training. The effectiveness of the proposed neurofeedback game is evaluated using attention scores based on the Sample entropy of EEG signals, beta-to-(alpha + theta) ratio, and the time taken for completing the game. The variations in covert attention are assessed by introducing visual distractions when the player navigates the car and quantified using changes in the attention score and the time taken for restoring the initial attention level. The attention score significantly improved from the first session to the final session by 22.64% and 21.43% for overt attention and covert attention tasks, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed neurofeedback game is an effective tool for enhancing overt and covert attention skills in healthy individuals.
Journal/Conference/Book titleIEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems