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Hypercoagulability, endotheliopathy, and inflammation approximating 1 year after recovery: Assessing the long-term outcomes in COVID-19 patients.
Sustained hypercoagulability and endotheliopathy are present in convalescent COVID-19 patients for up to 4 months from recovery. The hemostatic, endothelial, and inflammatory profiles of 39 recovered COVID-19 patients were evaluated up to 16 months after recovery from COVID-19. These values were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers (n = 124). 39 patients (71.8% males, median age 43 years) were reviewed at a mean of 12.7 ± 3.6 months following recovery. One patient without cardiovascular risk factors had post COVID-19 acute ischaemic limb. Elevated D-dimer and Factor VIII levels above normal ranges were noted in 17.9% (7/39) and 48.7% (19/39) of patients respectively, with a higher median D-dimer 0.34 FEU μg/mL (IQR 0.28, 0.46) (p < .001) and Factor VIII 150% (IQR 171, 203) (p = .004), versus controls. Thrombin generation (Thromboscreen) showed a higher median endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) of 1352 nM*min (IQR 1152, 1490) (p = .002) and a higher median peak height of 221.4 nM (IQR 170.2, 280.4) (p = 0.01) and delayed lag time 2.4 min (1.42-2.97) (p = 0.0002) versus controls. Raised vWF:Ag and ICAM-1 levels were observed in 17.9% (7/39) and 7.7% (3/39) of patients respectively, with a higher median VWF:Ag 117% (IQR 86, 154) (p = 0.02) and ICAM-1 54.1 ng/mL (IQR 43.8, 64.1) (p = .004) than controls. IL-6 was noted to be raised in 35.9% (14/39) of patients, with a higher median IL-6 of 1.5 pg/mL (IQR 0.6, 3.0) (p = 0.004) versus controls. Subgroup analysis stratifying patients by COVID-19 severity and COVID-19 vaccination preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection did not show statistically significant differences. Hypercoagulability, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation are still detectable in some patients approximately 1 year after recovery from COVID-19.