Singapore Institute of Technology
2023 SciR - Improved mineralization of dental enamel by electrokinetic delivery of F− and Ca2+ ions.pdf (1.15 MB)

Improved mineralization of dental enamel by electrokinetic delivery of F and Ca2+ ions

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-10-17, 03:05 authored by Nam Beng Tay, Hiong Yap GanHiong Yap Gan, Frederico Barbosa de Sousa, Lu ShenLu Shen, Diego Figueiredo Nóbrega, Chenhui Peng, LaTonya Kilpatrick-Liverman, Wei Wang, Stacey Lavender, Shira Pilch, Jongyoon Han

This in vitro study evaluated the effects of the infiltration of F- and Ca2+ ions into human enamel by electrokinetic flow (EKF) on the enamel microhardness and F- content. Sound human enamel ground sections of unerupted third molars were infiltrated with de-ionized water by EKF and with F- ion by EKF respectively. All samples were submitted to two successive transverse acid-etch biopsies (etching times of 30 s and 20 min) to quantify F- ion infiltrated deep into enamel. Remarkably, sound enamel showed a large increase in microhardness (MH) after infiltration of NaF (p < 0.00001) and CaCl2 (p = 0.013) by EKF. Additionally, NaF-EKF increased the remineralization in the lesion body of artificial enamel caries lesions compared to controls (p < 0.01). With the enamel biopsy technique, at both etching times, more F- ions were found in the EKF-treated group than the control group (p << 0.05), and more fluoride was extracted from deeper biopsies in the NaF-EKF group. In conclusion, our results show that EKF treatment is superior in transporting Ca2+ and F ions into sound enamel when compared to molecular diffusion, enhancing both the mineralization of sound enamel and the remineralization of artificial enamel caries.


Colgate Parmolive, USA research grant (Award number: 025804-00001)


Journal/Conference/Book title

Scientific Reports

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  • Published

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Corresponding author

Gan Hiong Yap

Project ID

  • 6541 (R-MIT-A403-001) Electrokinetic Flow in Normal Dental Enamel

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