Multi-Modality Imaging of Atheromatous Plaques in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Integrating Molecular and Imaging Markers
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common and debilitating condition characterized by the narrowing of the limb arteries, primarily due to atherosclerosis. Non-invasive multi-modality imaging approaches using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear imaging have emerged as valuable tools for assessing PAD atheromatous plaques and vessel walls. This review provides an overview of these different imaging techniques, their advantages, limitations, and recent advancements. In addition, this review highlights the importance of molecular markers, including those related to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, in PAD pathophysiology. The potential of integrating molecular and imaging markers for an improved understanding of PAD is also discussed. Despite the promise of this integrative approach, there remain several challenges, including technical limitations in imaging modalities and the need for novel molecular marker discovery and validation. Addressing these challenges and embracing future directions in the field will be essential for maximizing the potential of molecular and imaging markers for improving PAD patient outcomes.
Journal/Conference/Book titleInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences