The role of breath hold intensity modulated proton therapy for a case of left-sided breast cancer with IMN involvement. How protons compare with other conformal techniques?
Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of four different radiotherapy techniques for a case of left-sided breast cancer with Internal Mammary lymph Nodes (IMN) involvement.
Materials and methods: To identify the best radiotherapy technique for this patient, four methods were compared: 3D Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT), Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), Tomotherapy (TOMO) and Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT). Patient was treated using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique. Prescribed dose was 40.05y in 15 fractions. Plan evaluation was performed on target coverage and dose to the organs-at-risk (OARs) using 3D-CRT as a baseline.
Results: TOMO has the most ideal Conformity Index (CI) at 1.139, followed by IMPT at 1.158, VMAT at 0.765, and 3D-CRT at 0.685. Using 3D-CRT as a baseline, VMAT, TOMO and IMPT all showed improved dose coverage. IMPT has the best dose coverage. TOMO has the most ideal homogeneity index (HI) and Conformity Number (CN). Mean heart dose (MHD) is lowest for IMPT at 0.55 Gy and highest for VMAT at 4.79 Gy. V20Gy of left lung is the lowest for IMPT at 11.11%, compared to 17.53% for TOMO, 18.19% for VMAT and 33.33% for 3D-CRT. V5Gy for the contralateral breast ranges from 0.01% in IMPT to 72.32% in TOMO.
Conclusion: 3D-CRT compromising target coverage but achieving good OAR sparing for the contralateral right breast, left lung and right lung. Overall, IMPT performed best in terms of target coverage and OAR-sparing. Protons delivered superior target dose coverage and sparing of normal structures for this patient. As dose value parameters are expected to correlate with acute and chronic toxicities, proton therapy should be given due consideration as the preferred technique for the treatment of left-sided breast cancers with IMN involvement. Further studies with more patients can be done to evaluate the effectiveness of proton therapy on acute and chronic toxicities.
Journal/Conference/Book titleTechnical Innovations and Patient Support in Radiation Oncology