Singapore Institute of Technology
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Anti-Cytokine Autoantibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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posted on 2021-06-10, 07:25 authored by Hwee Siew Howe, Pui Lam Bernard LeungPui Lam Bernard Leung
Cytokine dysregulation is characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a systemic autoimmune disease of considerable heterogeneity. Insights gained about the cytokine dysregulation in SLE have the potential for identifying patient subsets before the onset of clinical disease and during established disease. Clustering patients by cytokine and disease activity subsets is more informative than isolated cytokine studies, as both pro inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines contribute to the cytokine dysregulated state in SLE. Endogenous anti-cytokine autoantibodies (ACAAs) may be involved in the regulation of cytokine biology by reducing excessive production or by prolonging their half-life in the circulation through the formation of cytokine-antibody immune complexes. Although endogenous ACAAs may have deleterious effects such as contributing to immunodeficiency states, their role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune conditions such as SLE has yet to be clearly elucidated. The aim of the present article is to provide a focused review of the current knowledge of ACAAs in SLE.


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This is the publisher's PDF version of: Howe, H. S., & Leung, B. P. L. (2020). Anti-cytokine autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Cells, 9(1), 72. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (